Education, academic study of
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From A Cyclopedia of Education, edited by Paul Monroe, Ph.D. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1911, vol. II, pp. 401-409).
- Paul Monroe (Ph.D., Professor of the History of Education, Teachers College, Columbia University)
- Jean Phillipe (Ph.D., Associate Director of the Laboratory of Physiological Psychology, Sorbonne, Paris)
In this article consideration is given only to the organized work in higher institutions of learning. The practical or professional consideration of the study of education is treated under the caption Teachers, training of. Some attention is also given to the same aspect of the subject in the various articles on the national systems, especially that of Germany, under the subtitle Training of Teachers. The scope and method of the scientific study of education is more fully considered in the articles on Experimental pedagogy; Experimental schools; and Research in education. The content as well as the development of the special phases of the study of education is given under the titles, History of education; Philosophy of education; Psychology, educational, etc.
The opportunities for the study of education in England are of comparatively recent origin. In the field of secondary education tradition, a narrow curriculum, reliance on experience rather than training, the confidence placed in the teaching ability of the scholar as such, were some of the factors which militated against professional studies; while in elementary school work the apprenticeship system prevailed until a few years ago. In 1825 there appeared a Plan for carrying into effect the Objects of the Society for Promoting the Science of Education, by Mr. Davenport, but little more was heard of the project. From 1837 to 1839 existed the Central Society, which aimed at "ascertaining the objects of education and determining the means of attaining them . . . and to give the theory of education a more scientific character than it has yet assumed." In 1848 a series of public lectures on education was organized to propound the views of the Congregational Board of Education, which favored voluntary effort in education as opposed to government intervention (see Crosby Hall Lectures on Education, London, 1848). Probably the earliest attempt to promote the study of education among teachers was made by the College of Preceptors, established in 1846 and empowered by its charter to "institute lectureships on any subject connected with the Theory and Practice of Education." In 1861 began the series of monthly meetings in London, at which prominent scholars and teachers delivered lectures on educational topics, but unfortunately the audiences only numbered from two to sixteen members. The first examination in the theory and practice of education was held in 1867, and twenty-four candidates passed. In 1873 the College established a professorship of the science and art of education, the first of its kind in England, followed in 1876 by the establishment of the Bell Professorships of Education at the Universities of Edinburgh and St. Andrews. Regular courses of lectures have been given since that time, and a special course is given in January at the winter meeting of the College. In 1895-1898 a training department for secondary teachers was conducted. In his Report to the Schools Inquiry Commission on Schools in the West Riding of Yorkshire (1868), Fitch strongly recommended the establishment of a professorship of pedagogy in one of the universities, and of degrees in education. The Headmasters' Conference in 1872 and subsequently also urged the universities to remedy the defect and provide for the study of education. Considerable pioneer work for the promotion of the study of education was done by C. H. Lake, Joseph Payne, Thomas Hall, Robert H. Quick, Joshua Fitch, and others. The Education Society, or the Society for the Development of the Science of Education, was founded in 1875 with an ambitious program, which, since it may well be adopted at the present period, is here given in full: to collect and classify educational facts; to discuss educational problems on a definite plan, and to arrange and record facts; to give lessons and discuss the principles involved; to examine and report on educational machinery; to get acquainted with educational ideas abroad; to examine and criticize the labors of eminent educationists; to examine the lives of eminent men; to consider the educational influences (conscious or unconscious) affecting their careers and to investigate the educational forces at work; to publish proceedings. Papers were read and lessons were given and criticized, but the influence of the Society among the rank and file of teachers was not great. In 1887 the Society was merged with the Teachers' Guild. From 1878 there has been a gradual increase in the number of training colleges for teachers, beginning with the establishment in that year of the Maria Grey Training College in London, for women; in 1879 the Teachers' Training Syndicate was appointed at Cambridge to organize courses in the theory and practice of education, and in the same year R. H. Quick was appointed to deliver a series of lectures on education at that university. In 1883 a teachers' diploma examination was instituted by the University of London. In 1890 the establishment of day training colleges in connection with the universities paved the way to some extent for the recognition of education as a university study. The opportunities for professional study were rapidly increased after 1894, when the special preparation of secondary teachers was recommended by the Bryce Commission, and became the logical outcome of the proposals for a teachers' register and the Education Act of 1902, which placed secondary education under the control of the central board. Courses in education both for elementary and secondary teachers are now found in most of the universities under the charge of a professor of education. There seems some indecision at present as to the faculty under which such courses should be placed, since both science and art students may take education toward their degrees. In the universities of Manchester, Liverpool, and Sheffield, for example, the instructors in education belong to both the faculties of arts and science; in the Scottish universities education is part of the faculty of philosophy. In no case, however, is there a separate faculty of education, nor is there any provision for degrees in education or pedagogy. A chair in this subject does not exist as yet at Oxford, where a reader is at the head of the work, or at Cambridge, where there is a lecturer. Students who prepare for teaching in secondary schools take the study of education as postgraduate courses. A few summer courses in education are offered, those at St. Andrews University and Oxford being the most prominent. The requirements for diplomas and certificates in education, which will give the best indication of the scope of educational study, include some or all of the following subjects: history of education; psychology, logic, and ethics; observation of children, and child study; school hygiene; principles of education; principles of teaching; school organization, discipline, and management; method. As a general rule most of the courses here given are accessible to students in day training colleges giving preparation for elementary schools.
The following courses may be taken as representative: —
- MANCHESTER UNIVERSITY .— The Mental and Physical Life of School Children. — The course will consist (a) of lectures offering an elementary introduction to genetic psychology, combined with (b) observation of children and other practical exercises in schools. In the Lent term, School Hygiene (five or six lectures). Scientific Principles of Teaching. — (1) The curriculum, especially with reference to the elementary school. (2) General principles of method, including the study of lesson notes. (3) Special method in the pursuit of individual branches of the curriculum. Systematic Review of the Principles of Education, including a study of the corporate life of schools and of school management. Michaelmas term. Selections from the History of Education. Lent term, The Observation of Children and School Hygiene; demonstrations, practical work, and lectures. The Pursuits of the Infant School. Observation, lectures, and demonstrations. Selections from the History of Education, bearing especially on the teaching of young children. Lectures, with demonstrations, on the organization and management of secondary schools, on periods in the History of Education, and on educational statistics.
- SHEFFIELD UNIVERSITY.— I. History of Education: (a) the educational reformers of the eighteenth century, with special study of Rousseau's Émile; (b) English education during the nineteenth century. II. Theory of Education: (a) the meaning of education; (b) the aim of education as determined by the consideration of (1) personality, (2) society; (c) the process of education as determined by (1) mental development, (2) the need of equipment for practical life, (3) the value of the subjects taught, (4) the organization of schools and classes. III. The Practice of Education: (a) the general principles underlying method in teaching; (b) the methods of teaching particular subjects, with special reference to those which students are going to teach; (c) organization; (d) school hygiene.
Advanced study of education in England is only in its initial stages. Up to the recent years Germany was still the Mecca of the educationalist, but there are signs of a growing activity at home, particularly along the lines of relating the results of experimental psychology with education. But unfortunately a good deal of the work in this field is done privately, in the sense that no university funds are placed at the disposal of the students. In London the University College offers facilities for research along psychological lines. The department of education in the University of Sheffield is provided with a small psychological laboratory, which is maintained by the university authorities. At Edinburgh University, students in training must take a term's work in the psychological laboratory, and the new training college is to contain a laboratory. The Teachers' Guild has formed a research committee which receives and discusses abstracts from psychological journals and assists in the prosecuting of research in the schools. But a good deal of the work of this type which is gradually finding its way into most universities is individual and unorganized, and there is some danger of duplicating not only English experiments, but a considerable amount of the work already done elsewhere. The question of educational research formed the subject of a report in Section L of the British Association at its 1910 meeting, in which the committee not only pointed out the need of funds for the furtherance of educational research, but referred to the progress made by other countries as compared with England. The Training College Record has recently begun to devote space to experimental pedagogy and is now published as the Journal of Experimental Psychology and Training College Record.
In addition to the means for study already referred to, the work of associations, such as the Child Study Association, should be mentioned. Several good pedagogical libraries are accessible to students in London at the Board of Education, at the Teachers' Guild, and at the College of Preceptors.
Professor James Pillans, Professor of Humanity in the University of Edinburgh, and author of Lectures on the Proper Objects and Methods of Education, had urged the establishment of chairs in education in at least two of the Scottish universities in 1828, and was so encouraged at the reception of the proposal as to repeat it in 1834 and suggest chairs in each of the four universities. At its preliminary meeting in 1847, the Educational Institute of Scotland, a body composed of members interested in education, recommended a wider dissemination of the theory and practice of education, and like the similar body in England, the College of Preceptors, arranged for a course of lectures in Edinburgh in 1847-1848. In 1851 the Institute produced a scheme for lectures in the theory and practice of education, but was without funds to put it into operation, but the organization constantly pressed for the establishment of professorships in education, and sent a memorial to the university commissioners in 1859. The appearance of a strong article on the subject in 1862 in the Museum encouraged Professor Pillans once more to put forward his scheme and to that end he interviewed Mr. Lowe, vice-president of the Education Department, on the subject, only to be told that there was "no science of education." From 1873 onward the matter was taken up in the press, e.g. Fortnightly Review, The Schoolmaster, Scotsman, Courant, Daily Review, Glasgow Herald. In 1876 the Bell Chairs of Education were established in the Universities of Edinburgh and St. Andrews, but for a long time the academic recognition of the subject was slight. Lectureships in education were established much later at Aberdeen (1893), and at Glasgow (1894). No degree is conferred in education, but the subject is accepted as a qualifying subject for the M.A. degree.
The first public course of education in a university faculty was established at the Sorbonne in 1883 for M. H. Marion (q.v.), a "lay Fénelon," whose views have profoundly changed the educational traditions of France. He occupied the chair until his death in 1896. He directed practical conferences at which the students discussed the best methods of education (see Revue Internationale de l'Enseignement 1883 and 1896). This first organization served as the prototype for present practice. In 1884 educational conferences were organized at Lyons by M. R. Thamin, now Rector of the University of Bordeaux. Some irregular attempts to introduce the study of education were also made at Bordeaux by M. Espinos in 1882. At Toulouse M. Cornpayré lectured in 1875 on the history of education and on child psychology in 1879.
At present regular conferences or a course in education exist in all the universities, in which students prepare for one of the agrégations in secondary education. (See France, education in.) Since 1906 all candidates for different agrégations must study pedagogy at the same time as they are pursuing the courses for their agrégation. In the first year they take a theoretical course, given at Paris by M. Durkheim, at Lyons by M. Chabot, at Bordeaux by M. Richard, at Montpellier by M. Foucault, at Grenoble by M. Dumesnil, etc. Such courses deal generally with the history and theory of secondary education, the psychology of the pupils, the evolution of the intellectual faculties of the child, the rights of children, social pedagogy, etc. These theoretical courses are nearly everywhere accompanied by other conferences conducted by specialists on school hygiene, training of the memory or attention, etc., defects of vision or hearing among pupils. The first part of the pedagogical course is intended to give general principles. In the succeeding year the candidates for the agrégation attend courses on special methods, and, before entering on their preparatory stage at a lycée, must attend a series of conferences on the best methods of instruction in the subject in which they expect to attain their agrégation. At Paris the rector, M. Liard, who was the first to organize this course, holds the opening conference in person, while the rest are given by the most qualified professors, e.g. M. Croiset in letters, M. Lavisse in history, etc. They deal with the teaching of literature, grammar, philosophy, history, geography, modern languages, mathematics, natural and physical sciences. These courses and conferences are at times attended not only by the candidates for the agrégation, but, as at Lyons, Grenoble, Montpellier, etc., by professors, teachers, and mistresses in the boys' and girls' lycées, whenever possible. A diploma is given at Lyons to those students who produce an interesting and original work on the subject matter of the courses. (See France, education in; Teachers, training of.) J. P.
The first attempt to give a professional education to teachers of the higher schools is due to J. M. Gesner (q.v.), who founded (1734) a Seminarium Philologicum at the University of Göttingen, in which candidates of theology were prepared for their work as school teachers. Their pedagogical study was based on Gesner's Institutiones rei scholasticæ, an exposition of the principles of Ratke, Comenius, and Locke, and was supplemented by practice lessons in the Göttingen schools. A considerable impetus was given to the study of education in several of the Prussian universities through the efforts of Zedlitz (q.v.), the minister of Frederick II. He, being an admirer of Basedow and his Philanthropinum in Dessau, called the philanthropinist, E. C. Trapp (q.v.), to the University of Halle as professor of pedagogy and director of the pedagogical seminary (1779). Trapp's work in Halle was a failure, and he was succeeded (1782) by Fr. A. Wolf, under whom pedagogy was soon entirely supplanted by philology.
At the University of Königsberg, Zedlitz arranged to have the professors of the philosophical faculty take turns in lecturing on pedagogy (1774). In this way Kant (q.v.) gave four courses on pedagogy, the first time in 1776, taking as a basis Basedow's Method-book, for which he later on substituted Bock's Lehrbuch der Erziehungskunst (Königsberg, 1780).
In a few other universities lectures on pedagogy were delivered and pedagogical seminaries founded, as in Helmsted,Heidelberg,and Kiel. The pedagogical Seminar at Heidelberg was conducted by F. H. C. Schwarz, the historian of Education. His announcement published in 1807 (Einrichtung des Paedagogischen Seminarium auf der Universität zu Heidelberg) sets forth a very modern course for the two years, including pedagogy, didactics, catechisation and method for schools and other educational institutions, and history of educational institutions and literature. The students wrote essays on assigned topics, gave accounts of their own experiences and observations at school visits, and acquired some practical experience. The real introduction of pedagogy as a university study is due to the activity of Herbart (q.v.), Kant's successor in Königsberg. The pedagogical seminary, which he established in 1810 and directed until he left Königsberg in 1833, became the model of other important institutions of this kind. In 1843-1845 Gustav Thanlow, a disciple of Hegel, conducted a pedagogical seminar and lectured on the philosophy of education at the University of Kiel. (See his Nothwendigkeit und Bedeutung eines pädagogischen Seminars auf Universitäten; and Erhebung der Pädagogik zur philosophischen Wissenschaft oder Einleitung in die Philosophie der Pädagogik, Berlin, 1840.) Brzoska, one of Herbart's pupils, carried the idea of a pedagogical seminary to Jena, where, after his early death, it was put into execution by K. V. Stoy (q.v.), and afterwards (from 1885 on) by William Rein, who still holds the professorship of pedagogy and directs the pedagogical seminary and the practice school connected with it. In like manner, another follower of Herbart, T. Ziller (q.v.), worked in Leipzig, where (in 1862) he established a pedagogical seminary which he directed until his death (1882). The work of Strümpell in Leipzig is confined to theoretical pedagogy, while that of other professors, such as Hofman in the same university, of Ziegler in Strassburg, Uhlig in Heidelberg, Schiller in Giessen, extends also to observation and practice teaching.
On the whole it may be said that the great interest in the study of education, and the care for the professional training of the teachers of the higher schools, which was very prominent towards the end of the eighteenth century, later on in the universities gave place to a certain contempt of pedagogy. It was assumed that, if the teacher was a thoroughly trained scholar in his specialty, be it philology or science or mathematics, the ability of imparting his knowledge to young minds would follow of itself. More recently, however, the importance of a theoretical and practical training in the science and art of education is becoming more and more recognized.
As organized at present, the academic study of education is incorporated for the most part into the work of the Seminarjahr, which is required of all prospective teachers in secondary schools, and is organized under the direction of selected secondary school directors. And in addition to this the traditional seminar work of the university for the year preceding the Seminarjahr has been directed largely to the academic training of these prospective teachers. The work in direct connection with the universities is largely theoretic and has been becoming gradually of less and less importance, while on the other hand the term Seminar is being applied now almost wholly to this practical work of the Seminarjahr under the control of the directors of important secondary schools. At the present time there are about seventy such designated schools in Prussia, each being responsible for eight or ten students per year. The work of these seminars, which is based upon a thorough mastery of the appropriate subject matter, consists in a study of the theory and practice of education in relation to the higher schools under the supervision of the school directors, together with practical observation in one of the higher schools, to which they are assigned in groups of eight or ten. Here twice a week discussions occur upon all sorts of theoretical and practical questions which arise out of the work of the school. Such discussions necessitate investigation and study of the kind which formerly in Germany and elsewhere now would usually be organized into university courses of instruction. This work is fully described in the article Germany, education in, in the section on Training of Teachers. (See also Teachers, training of.)
For this reason the formal study of education in the universities as an independent academic subject has little place. There is only one special professorship in education at the present time, and only recently the Bavarian authorities refused to sanction the establishment of special chairs in education. However, some courses on the subject are usually offered in most universities. Ample provisions are made for the study of psychology, pure and experimental, of philosophy, logic, and ethics. Such courses in pedagogy and history of education as are found are given by the professors or docents in the faculty of philosophy. The fullest courses in these subjects are found at Leipzig, where the preparation is given for teachers in the higher schools of Saxony. These include history of education, modern educational problems, introduction to theory and principles of education with practical work, physical education, and method. Only one university, Jena, has a recognized practice school. At Leipzig use is made of the local higher schools for practical work and observation. Göttingen and Kiel also announce pedagogical seminars, but for the present they are in abeyance. But the facilities at the universities are inadequate, for the reason that the professional preparation of teachers is not part of the work of these institutions. Advanced study of education is stimulated in lower schools, at any rate, by the necessity of meeting the standards of promotional examinations. For the special training of normal school teachers and some administrative officials a special course (wissenschaftliche Fortbildungskurse) has been established in Berlin, including educational subjects. Much professional activity is shown by teachers' associations and in individual study and experimentation. At Leipzig the Teachers' Association established an important institute for experimental pedagogy and psychology (Institut für experimentelle Pädagogik und Psychologie), and in Munich a plan for a similar institute (pädagogisch-psychologische Institut) was drawn up in March, 1910. School museums and good educational libraries, especially in Berlin and Leipzig, offer excellent opportunities for research. In the following table a list is given of the courses announced in the German universities for the winter semester 1910-1911. Only those courses which are specifically educational are mentioned, without any reference to courses in ethics, philosophy, and pure psychology, which are found in all the universities.
Educational courses in german universities Winter Semester 191O-1911 (Figures in brackets denote number of hours per week)
Diseases of School Children. (1)
Teaching of Modern Languages. (2)
Principles of Secondary Education. (1)
Experimental Pedagogy. (2)
Experiments in the Psychological Institute. (3)
Conference on Recent Research in Experimental Psychology. (2)
Herbart, Seminar. (2)
Experimental Psychology Practice. Pedagogy. (2)
Psychology of Adolescence. (2)
Rousseau's Philosophy and Pedagogy. (1)
Topics from the History of Education. (2)
Educational Psychology. (2)
School Hygiene. (1)
Introduction to Experimental Pedagogy. (1)
Educational Psychology. (2)
History of culture and education since the Renaissance. (2)
Outlines of the theory and method of education. (2)
History of Psychology. (1)
History of the Prussian School System.
History of Education and Educational Theory. (2)
Survey of the History of Modern Education. (1)
General principles. (4)
Seminar and practice-teaching. (5)
- Königsberg. History of Education. (4)
Introduction to Child Psychology and Experimental Pedagogy. (Daily)
- Leipzig. History of Education. (4)
Modern Educational Problems. Educational Psychology Seminar. (5)
Introduction to Theory and Principles of Education. (2)
Seminar with Practice-Teaching in Mathematics, Science, French, and English. (4)
History of Education. (3)
Theory and Principles of Physical Education.
General Principles. (3)
Practicum in Education. (2)
Introduction to Experimental Psychology. (2)
Introduction to Experimental Psychology. (4)
History of Education. (2)
The Mutual Relations of Philosophy and Education in the Last Century. (2)
Theory of Education. (3)
Practice of Education. (1)
Practicum on Herbart. (1)
Practicum in Experimental Pedagogy. (2)
Although the opportunities and facilities for the scientific study of education are far better and more complete in this country than in Europe, their history does not go further back than a quarter of a century. Indeed, it may be said that a proper conception of what the study of education should stand for has only been formed within the last few years. Remarkable prevision was, however, shown by the faculty of Amherst College as early as 1826. Their report presented on Aug. 21, 1826, to the board of trustees, in which they recommended the introduction of a system of electives, contained these significant proposals: "But whatever may be thought of these suggestions, there is one new department of great practical importance which it appears to us should be annexed to the college, as soon as the funds will anyhow permit — we mean the Science of education. When it is considered how this lies at the very foundation of all improvement . . . it is truly wonderful to us that so little attention has been bestowed upon the science of mental culture, and that there is not . . . and never has been, a single professor of education on this side of the Atlantic." A new system of "equivalents" was introduced in 1827, but the science of education formed no part of them.
Important work was done for a period extending over nearly twenty years (1823) by Rev. Samuel R. Hall, the founder of the first normal school in the United States, at Concord, Vt. (1723-1830). In 1830 he removed to Andover, and there opened a teachers' seminary to educate teachers and others. While only the common branches of school education were given, there was a special course in the art of teaching; in 1835 there was a professor in natural science and the art of teaching, and the course of study was announced to be more professional. In 1837 Hall moved to Plymouth, N.H., where he also opened a teachers' seminary and himself gave fifty lectures on the art of teaching each year. When he moved to Craftsbury, Vt., in 1840, he added a teachers' department, which he conducted up to 1846. Hall was the author of the Instructors' Manual and Lectures on Schoolkeeping (Boston, 1829), which, according to the Annals of Education stood alone as a book on principles of education amidst the ever increasing number of school textbooks. In 1831 a professorship of education was established at Washington College in western Pennsylvania, according to a record in the Annals of Education, Feb. 1831, p. 82. In 1838 weekly lectures were given before the Massachusetts Board of Education, among others, by Horace Mann, James G. Carter, and Rev. Charles Brooks. But generally the demand of this period, which may be followed in the volumes of the Annals of Education, was for the provision of professional training of common school teachers rather than for higher study of education. (For further details see Teachers, training of.) In most cases the colleges and universities were compelled by the demand of their students and the insistence of those who recognized the inefficiency of secondary school teachers to provide some means of acquiring a slight professional training before their entrance into the secondary schools. It was obvious that a large number of college graduates had devoted themselves to the teaching profession, and that the number of these would necessarily increase with the multiplication of high schools. The slow progress made at the beginning was due, as in England, to a feeling that education did not offer a field of study, that experience was the best type of professional training, that, if such work had to be done, the normal school, and not the college or the university, was the place for it. But in spite of contempt and ridicule, lack of encouragement and inadequate equipment, education, at first assigned a subordinate position in a faculty of philosophy, was gradually provided with a professor, became established in a department, and later in a college with separate buildings, faculty, and administration.
With the opening of New York University (then called University of the City of New York) in 1832 there was established a chair of the philosophy of education for "educating teachers of common schools." Thomas H. Gallaudet (q.v.) filled the post during the collegiate years 1832 to 1834. This was probably the first effort made in the United States for the special preparation of teachers of common schools, and certainly the first of such work in college. In his Seventh Annual Report (1842-1843) Horace Mann urged the necessity of the proper preparation of teachers. "Why," he asked, "should we require a lawyer or physician to study his profession, and let the teacher . . . go unacquainted with his business?" When called to the presidency of Antioch College in 1853, he introduced a course in education. In 1850 the recommendations of President Wayland (q.v.) of Brown University for a course of instruction in the science of teaching was accepted, and S. S. Greene of Boston became the first professor of didactics at this university; but the chair was abolished in 1854 owing to lack of funds. The students who desired the subjects connected with it were advised to go to the Rhode Island Normal School at Providence. An abortive attempt was made to introduce the study of education in Missouri University in 1877. At the State University of Iowa a chair of Mental Philosophy, Moral Philosophy and Didactics was established in 1873, when the provision of instruction in education had been advocated for thirteen years (from 1853). Sporadic attempts to provide facilities for college courses in education were made throughout this period. Thus B. A. Hinsdale lectured on teaching at Hiram College each fall term from 1870 to 1882, continuing a custom introduced in President Garfield's time in 1856. At Michigan University the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Dr. John M. Gregory, voluntarily offered his services in 1860 to give courses in the principles and philosophy of education, organization, management, and instruction of schools. He gave two lectures a week, which were attended not only by the college seniors, but also by members of the law and medical schools. But in 1879 a chair devoted to the professional training of teachers was established at this university by President James B. Angell, who had been at Brown University under President Wayland. W. H. Payne was the first professor of the Science and Art of Teaching. At Columbia University President F. A. P. Barnard strongly advocated the professional education of teachers in the annual reports of 1881 and 1882, and it seems highly probable from his correspondence with Henry Barnard that an unsuccessful attempt was made at this time to secure the services of Professor S. S. Laurie of Edinburgh. This proposal led to the establishment at this university of a course in philosophy of education, which was later to be merged in Teachers College. Since that period chairs, schools, departments, and colleges devoted to the study of education have been established in most of the larger colleges and universities, and few of the smaller colleges have failed to provide some courses in education, however inadequate these may be.
Within the last ten years there has been a rapid increase in the provision of chairs of education and in the establishment of schools and departments of education or in the separation of these out of other departments. Thus in 1901 the University of West Virginia founded a department of education; in 1902 Missouri University obtained a teachers' college; in 1905 the University of Virginia established a school of education; similar establishments followed in other institutions. At present many, if not most, of the institutions bearing the title of college give courses in education, in many cases no better than, and in some cases inferior to work in normal schools. But in the better institutions the education departments not only meet the demand for trained teachers in high schools, but provide opportunities for research based on scientific methods. Further, a new aim is beginning to make itself felt, and its realization in many instances is a remarkable testimony to the progress of a subject which so recently was pushed into the background almost universally. The study of education is no longer confined to the professional needs of the teacher, but is thrown open for its cultural value and importance in civic life of the future citizen in all walks and professions of life. While in the early stages of its development education was given no academic credit, it is now everywhere recognized as a proper study in the junior and senior years. The historical sketch given above illustrates how education has gradually become independent of other departments. This not only adds new dignity to the subject, but permits it to develop along lines appropriate to it. With this goes the question of organization. As was indicated in the historical sketch, the study of education began as an appanage of one of the older chairs, and it has gradually developed to such dimensions that a separate organization was found necessary for it. In many instances, especially in the smaller colleges, the courses in education continue to be given in the department of liberal arts and sciences; at Michigan University education forms part of the department of literature, science, and arts. While it is true that some parts in the study of education touch the academic departments very closely, the general feeling is that this subject should be organized in separate departments in colleges and in separate schools or colleges in the universities, while liberal arrangements can easily be made for intimate relations between related branches.
Considerable advance has been made on the period when the study of education, under the title of didactics or pedagogy, could be dispensed in one or two books, like David P. Page's Theory and Practice of Teaching (New York, 1847), or Alonzo Potter and George B. Emerson's The School and the Schoolmaster (New York, 1842), which covered the principles of education, method, hygiene, administration, and school management within the limits of four or five hundred pages. These two books for a long time held the field, the first being republished in 1885 by W. H. Payne. As in most fields of study, no universal plan or system prevails in America in the study of education. All manner of courses are found, between institutions like Teachers College, Columbia University, and the School of Education, Chicago University, on the one hand, and the small college on the other. History of education, psychology, principles, and methods of education are offered in nearly all institutions. It has remained for the larger institutions with greater wealth and better equipment to differentiate, so that they are able to offer preparation for elementary and secondary teachers, supervisors, superintendents, college teachers, and special subject teachers, as well as to supply the needs of the student who wishes to undertake important research work in education, and to the extent of establishing traveling scholarships for the study of comparative systems of education. The following instances are cited merely by way of example to illustrate both institutions which are recognized as the most important and those which may be said to offer average facilities. In each case only those courses which deal purely with some aspect of educational study are mentioned, the correlated courses in other departments being omitted.
Teachers College, Columbia University.
- History and principles of Education: history of education in modem times; the educational theories of Herbart and Froebel ; social and philosophical foundations of Greek and Roman education; history of education (graduate course); history of education in the United States; history of education in England; the historical foundations of modern education.
- Philosophy of Education: logic as applied to teaching; social life and school curriculum; fundamental principles of education; educational sociology; philosophy of education (graduate); the public school and democracy; historic relations of philosophy and education; philosophy and sociology of education.
- School Administration: comparative education; organization and administration of school systems; comparative education (advanced course); administration of public education in the United States; current problems in elementary education.
- General and Educational Psychology: the applications of experimental and physiological psychology to education; readings in educational psychology; the psychology of childhood; psychology and education of exceptional children; educational psychology; the psychology of elementary school subjects; the application of psychological and statistical methods to education.
- Secondary Education (general and advanced courses): secondary education in Germany; problems in secondary education.
- Theory and Practice of Teaching in Elementary Schools: criticism and supervision of instruction in the primary school; supervision of instruction in the elementary school; the relationship of the kindergarten to the primary school; criticism and supervision of instruction In the elementary school; special problems in the theory and practice of elementary education.
- Kindergarten Principles: theory and practice of kindergarten teaching; curricula of kindergarten normal schools and problems in kindergarten supervision; gifts and occupations; songs and games; stories; design in kindergarten; play and games.
- Religious Education: introduction to religious education ; the Sunday school; the principles of moral education; the analysis of religious phenomena.
- In addition the theory and practice of teaching special subjects such as biology; domestic science j English; fine arts; French; German; geography; history; Latin; manual training; mathematics; music; nature study; physical education; physical science.
- History of Education: history of education (elementary); history of European education (ancient and medieval periods); history of European education (modern period); history of education (modern period); history of American education.
- Administrative and Social Aspects of Education: school administration (introductory course); school supervision; state and municipal school systems; state school administration; the schools of Germany, England, and the United States; methods of organization and instruction; administration of secondary education; problems in secondary education; the course of study in the elementary schools; curriculum; the school and the community; special schools and supplementary social agencies; philosophy of education; moral education; general principles of fine and industrial art; industrial education in public schools.
- Educational Psychology and Mental Development: educational psychology (introductory course); educational psychology (advanced); individual psychology; elementary genetic psychology; child study j introduction to experimental education; experimental education; the psychology of reading; the psychology of writing; educational tests; genetic psychology; experimental problems in education.
- Educational Methods: general principles of methods; principles of method for elementary teachers; principles of method for high school teachers; survey of special methods in elementary education; criticism and supervision of teaching; development of modern methods of teaching in elementary schools; practice teaching.
- General Principles and Special Problems of Education: principles of education; public education in America; principles of education; advanced principles of education: current problems in education; German pedagogy; mental deficiency and retardation in school.
- Religious Education: history of the Sunday school; introduction to religious education; the materials of religious education; methods of teaching the Bible.
- Kindergarten Education: kindergarten theory and practice (elementary); principles and methods in the kindergarten; theory and practice (advanced); the kindergarten program; critical study of the kindergarten program; kindergarten observation; Froebel's educational theories; plays and games.
- In addition the theory and practice of teaching special subjects such as history; home economics; Latin; German; mathematics; English; physics; geography; natural science; elocution; children's readings and school libraries; hygiene and physical education; music; aesthetic and industrial education.
- History of educational practice and theories; the history of education in Europe since the Reformation; introduction to the study of
education; school administration as a branch of municipal affairs; modern theories of education; the education of the individual; educational theory in the early nineteenth century; organization and management of state and city schools and school systems: secondary education public high schools, endowed and private schools; 'elementary education, programs of study, equipment, administration; the theory of statistical work and the application of statistical method to education; contemporary problems in education; the evolution and present status of education in certain selected states.
University of Texas
- School management; the process of teaching; principles of education; psychology of education; psychology of development; history of education; philosophy of education; abnormal psychology; psychology of adolescence; courses of study and organization of high schools; school supervision and administration; seminaries in psychology and history of education; teachers' courses in mathematics, botany, Latin, history, physics, physiography, German.
Similar courses, if not under similar names, are found at the University of Michigan, University of Wisconsin, and Cornell University, with some additions which may be mentioned: Michigan offers courses also in school hygiene; educational theories of the Greeks; comparative school systems; history of educational systems in America; social education. Wisconsin has comparative educational administration; experimental education; contemporary educational movements. Cornell provides courses in experimental investigation; school hygiene; and industrial education.
These courses are intended both for graduate and undergraduate study. In addition to the opportunities for advanced study of education in colleges and universities, the teacher in service and the student may continue their educational research in the numerous teachers' voluntary associations (q.v.), local, state, and national; in teachers' institutes (q.v.); reading circles (q.v.); summer schools, the majority of which cater specially for the teachers' needs and furnish many of the courses specified above. Of wide scope and influence are the National Education Association (q.v.), with its many departments and its annual publication; the National Society of College Teachers of Education; the National Society for the Scientific Study of Education; Section L (organized 1906) of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The number of national journals (q.v.) and the annual bibliography published by the United States Bureau of Education both testify to the extent of educational research in this country. Further, the study of education is considerably advanced by the numerous commissions (q.v.), education boards such as the General Education Board (q.v.), and foundations of the nature of the Carnegie and Sage Foundations (qq.v.). See, especially, Teachers, training of; also Experimental pedagogy; Experimental schools; History of education; Philosophy of education; Psychology, educational; and the articles on the various national systems.
- British Association. Section L. Report of the Committee on Mental and Physical Factors involved in Education. (September, 1910.)
- Calendars and announcements of British Colleges and Universities.
- Findlay, J. J. After Twenty Years; Retrospect and Forecast. Journal of Education (London), January, 1910; see also March, 1911.
- Payne, J. Lectures on the Science and Art of Education. (Boston, 1884.)
- Ross, D. Education as a University Subject; its History, Present Position, and Prospects. (Glasgow, 1883.)
- Sadler, M. E. University Day Training Colleges; their Origin, Growth, and Influence in English Education. In The Department of Education in the University of Manchester, 1890-1911. (Manchester, 1911.)
- Sandiford, P. Training of Teachers in England and Wales. (New York, 1910.)
- Schoolmasters Yearbook and Directory, 1910-1911, pp. 167-195. (London, 1910.)
- Turner, F. C. The History of the Education Society. Journal of Education (London), April and May, 1887.
- BROWN, J. F. The Courses in Education in German Universities. Journal of Educational Psychology, March, 1910.
- &mdash7 Training of Teachers for Secondary Schools. (New York, 1911.)
- Fries, W. Die Vorbildung der Lehrer. In Baumeister. Handbuch der Erziehungs-und Unterrichtslehre, Vol. II. Pt. I. (Munich, 1895.)
- Kandel, I. L. Training of Elementary School Teachers in Germany. (New York, 1910.)
- Paulsen, F. Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts, Vol. II. (Leipzig, 1897.)
- Rehm, A. Die Frage der Professuren für Pädagogik an der bayer. Hochschulen. (Munich, 1910.)
- Rein, W. Enzyklopädisches Handbuch der Pädagogik; s.v. Pädagogisches Universitäts-Seminar.
- Sutton, W. S. The Organization of the Department of Education in Relation to the other Departments in Colleges and Universities. Journal of Pedagogy, Vol. XIX, Nos. 2-3, December, 1906-March, 1907.
United States: —
- American Annals of Education (1830-1839).
- Catalogues and announcements of colleges and universities.
- Hinsdale, B. A. The Study of Education in American Colleges and Universities. Educ. Rev., Vol. XIX (1900), pp. 105-120.
- Luckey, G. W. A. The Professional Training of Secondary Teachers in the United States. (New York, 1903.)
- Sutton, W. S., and Bolton. F. E. The Relation of the Department of Education to other Departments in Colleges and Universities. Journal of Pedagogy, Vol. XIX, Nos. 2-3, December, 1906-March, 1907.